Check source freedom

Some of these tutorials may refer to nonfree software. Make sure to check the freedom of the source code or application before following any external tutorial.

Building a deb Package

Installing required Programs

To handle packages, you need to install some programs:

sudo apt-get install debhelper dh-make dpkg-dev

Building a new .deb Package

Downloading and Extracting

First, check if the program is free!

Then, if it is or if there is not enough information on the program's website, download the program you want to build:

wget http://www.someserver.org/program.tar.gz

or

wget http://www.someserver.org/program.tar.bz2

Extract the program source code from the archive:

tar -xzf program.tar.gz

or

tar -xjf program.tar.bz2

Generate "debian" Hierarchy

You may want to keep your full name and email address from package to package. In that case, add the following lines to your ~/.bashrc:

export DEBFULLNAME="Joe Black"
export DEBEMAIL="joe.black@domain.ext"

cd inside the extracted folder:

cd program

Check if the program is free! Sometimes, the license inside the source code is different from the one stated on the program's website, in that case file a bug on the program's website.

Run debhelper:

dh_make

Remove unneeded files:

cd debian
rm unneeded-files

To convert your package to "quilt v3":

mkdir -p source
echo "3.0 (quilt)" >source/format

Editing Files

Edit all needed files: see Debian New Maintainers' Guide for details.

cd to original program folder:

cd ..

Updating the changelog

Debian provides a tool called dch to help ensure your changelog is valid.

dch -i

If updating a debian package, you should change the version to indicate it has gNewSense changes. For example, if the debian changelog entry looks like this:

Then our updated version will be:

Note that we don't have an unstable suite and use the name of the target suite instead.

Building the Package

Build the package:

dpkg-buildpackage -rfakeroot -us -uc

Checking the Package

To check a package, you need to install lintian:

sudo apt-get install lintian

Then, check the package:

cd ..
lintian package.dsc
lintian package.changes

If you have warnings (W) or errors (E), the page explaining lintian tags can be helpful to correct them.

Applying a Patch

Note: this section needs to be updated to use quilt v3.

To apply a patch, you need the quilt package:

sudo apt-get install quilt

You have to create the ~/.quiltrc configuration file:

cat > ~/.quiltrc << "EOF"
QUILT_PATCHES=debian/patches
QUILT_DIFF_ARGS="--no-timestamps --no-index -pab"
QUILT_REFRESH_ARGS="--no-timestamps --no-index -pab"
EOF

Explanations for these options can be found in the howto for "quilt".

Then:

mkdir debian/patches
quilt new fix-my-problem.patch
quilt add my-problematic-file.ext

Edit the problematic file and then:

quilt refresh
quilt header -e

The last line is for editing the patch header which has to look like:

Description: fixes the lintian's `E: usb-modeswitch: shell-script-fails-syntax-check' error.
Author: Joe Black <joe.black@somewhere.ext>
Origin: vendor
Forwarded: no
Last-Update: 2010-10-28

By default, quilt uses vi for edition, if you are not familiar with vi, vi Wikibook could help you.

Note: you can skip the following instructions for patching if you use quilt v3.

Edit the debian/control file and add "quilt" to the "Build-Depends:" line.

If not already present, add the following lines inside your debian/rules:

include /usr/share/quilt/quilt.make
        [...]
build: build-stamp
build-stamp: $(QUILT_STAMPFN)
        dh_testdir
        [...]
clean: unpatch
        dh_clean build-stamp
        [...]

Be sure to replace eight spaces " " by a <TAB> or you will have an error when building the package.

Overriding Lintian Notifications

If you have a good reason to do so, you can override lintian's tags. For example:

emacs usb-modeswitch-1.1.3/debian/usb-modeswitch.lintian-overrides

In this file, write the lintian warning or error you want to override:

usb-modeswitch: shell-script-fails-syntax-check ./lib/udev/usb_modeswitch

Save and quit. Then open rules file:

emacs usb-modeswitch-1.1.3/debian/rules

And add "dh_lintian" in it:

        [...]
binary-arch: build install
        dh_testdir
        [...]
        dh_installman
        dh_lintian
        dh_link
        [...]

Save and quit, then rebuild the package:

cd package
dpkg-buildpackage -rfakeroot -us -uc

Finally, check the package with lintian.

Modifying an Existing .deb Package

The way to modify an existing .deb package is documented on quilt howto. Firstly, get the source:

apt-get source my-program

Rebuild the source tree with the format "3.0 (quilt)":

mkdir -p my-program-0.1/debian/source
echo "3.0 (quilt)" >my-program-0.1/debian/source/format
dpkg-source -b my-program-0.1

Apply diffs to the source tree:

dpkg-source -x my-program-0.1-1.dsc
cd my-program-0.1

Patch the source code (see Applying a Patch section).

If you use "quilt v3", you need to remove quilt temporary files (see http://wiki.debian.org/Projects/DebSrc3.0#Howtoconvertasourcepackage.3F):

rm -Rf .pc

Update the changelog (see Updating the changelog section).

Then rebuild the .deb package with your modifications:

debuild -us -uc

Official Guides for Building & Packaging

Building Custom Kernels


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Building_A_deb_Package (last edited 2014-03-16 19:47:16 by FelipeLopez)